Tuesday, July 1, 2014

The other two back-up research projects

(Topic: To observe the workings of and build a small compression operated LED)


Time Required
Very Short (≤ 2 days)
Simple research on electronics
Material Availability
Minimal shopping required
Very Low (Under $20)
Post project payouts   
No risk whatsoever
A shuttlecock that flashes a quick burst of light when hit

A project that revolves around building small electronics. We have decided to fuse electronics and badminton.

When a person shakes this small compression operated LED, it lights up. Upon opening this up, we discovered how it works. From bottom to top, it is laid out like this: Coin batteries, spring, electronics(unaccessible without completely destroying the light) and LED bulb inside casing. Shaking the light causes centriugal force to press the batteries upwards inside the case onto the spring, transfering power to the electronics and lighting the LED.

Using the same shockingly simple electronics and the same concepts, we can wire up a shuttlecock so that hitting it compresses the batteries against the spring. This way, the shuttlecock flashes a brilliant blue or maybe pink or whatever colour you may please when hit. Imagine playing in an unlighted Sports Hall with flashing shuttlecocks! It's almost a dream.


(Topic: To observe how much of radiation (we will not create that much of a radiation that will post a threat to us) can a plant withstand for three days.) 

Warning*: Please do not carry out this project without supervision for there is radiation in this project. This project requires utmost safety precautions taken.


Time Required
Short (3 days)
Simple research on radiation safety(you will need this) and chemistry.
Material Availability
Chemicals that when mix does not explode and give off a fair amount of radiation that will not post a threat to us.
Medium ($50 and above)
Post project payouts   
Very high precaution and supervision needed
Observe how much of radiation can a plant survive

We will attempt to use chemicals to imitate the state of radiation and expose them to plants for three days and observe for any difference.

Our Project Proposal

Names: Ray Ang, Wong Min Xian, Ryan Yuen
Class: S2-06
Group Reference: B  

1. Type of research

We are conducting a hypothesis- driven research

2. Proposal

Title: Investigation of the effects of different colour light (red, green and blue) and soil environment (Mollisols, Alfisols and Entisols) used on a green bean plant to see which environment it grows best in.
Our purpose: Our purpose is to investigate which setup can best promote plant growth and use this data to help promote plant growth so as to slow down the pace of global warming from happening until we can find a solution to solve it.

  Time Required
Long (≤ 14 days)
Simple knowledge of Biology
Material Availability
Intense shopping required
High (above $50)
Little safety precautions required (please do not eat soil)

Soil effects
Mollisols: Vegetation: prairie, grassland
Climate: variety of soil temperature regimes (cryic to hypothermic)
Soil moisture regime: variety of soil moisture regimes - aquic, udic, ustic, or xeric; average annual precipitation between 200 to 800 mm
Major soil property: organic matter content, high base saturation,
Diagnostic horizons: argillic, cambic (natric, calcic, petrocalcic, gypsic, albic, duripan)
Epipedon: mollic
Major processes: melanization, decomposition, humification, pedoturbation
Characteristics: highly fertile soils

Alfisols: Vegetation: deciduous forest (prairie, grassland)
Climate: thermic or warmer, mesic or cooler
Soil moisture regime: erratic soil moisture regime
Major soil property: medium to high base saturation
Diagnostic horizons: albic, argillic (natric, kandic)
Epipedon: ochric (mollic, umbric)
Major processes: weathering, eluviation/illuviation

Entisols: Vegetation: not specified, bare soil.
Climate: pergelic to hypothermic
Soil moisture regime: dry to aquic
Major soil property: featureless soil bodies
Diagnostic horizons: typically absent, albic
Epipedon: ochric
Characteristic: little or no evidence of soil development

A.    Question being addressed

We want to find out what light and soil type environment best promotes plant growth.
Dependent variable:
The constants are:
(a)  The amount of water used to water the plant.
(b)  the amount of soil used for each set-up.
(c)  the temperature in all set-up.
(d)  the resistance and voltage of the bulb.
(e)  the adapter that connects the power socket to the bulb.   

B.    Hypotheses

The hypothesis is the setup of red-light and mollisol soil would best promote plant growth.

C. Materials, diagram, procedure.

3 sets of (Red,green and blue coloured papers), power socket, 3 Light Bulbs all of same resistance and voltage, 4 sets of 300ml different soil type (Mollisols, Alfisols and Entisols), 3 cardboards, 3 power sockets, 3 adapter, black tape, 12 flower pots and 12 green beans.


Science proposal diagram.jpg


What to do:
1. Cover 3 identical light bulbs with colour paper (1 red coloured light bulb, 1 green coloured light bulb and 1 blue coloured bulb), so there should be 3 identical light bulb with each a colour).

2. Use 3 identical A4 cardboard boxes with little holes so you should have nine identical cardboard boxes in total. Cover all holes with black tape.
3. After that, take 12 identical flower pots with a radius of no less than 6 cm for the roots to have space and grow. Put 300ml of each soil into each flower pot (so we will have four flower pots of 300ml Mollisol, four flower pots of 300ml Alfisol and four flower pots of 300ml Entisol, view diagram) and pour 75 ml of water into each cup. Put in a green bean seed into each nine cups.

4. After placing all 3 light bulbs with each a different coloured paper put it into the 3 boxes (so we would have 3 different colour light with same soil setup, view diagram). Make a small hole for the wire that connects the bulb to the socket, make sure that no light enters through that hole by taping it again with black tape. Repeat this action for all the cardboard boxes. Place 3 flower pots of different soil into different light environments so we will have done what the diagram shows us. After that with the three leftover pots with different soil, put them under natural sunlight (this is the control).

5. Water the plant daily and measure plants growth with a ruler. *Note: Do not turn off the bulb inside, and check the batteries to see if they still have power. Keep the bulb lit all-day.

• Risk and Safety: Potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

• Risk and Safety:
Always be careful when handling electronics; do not touch wires when electricity is running. Little risk involved, so safety equipment is not required. In extreme cases, if for any reason insecure, wear rubber gloves.
When handling soil, even indirectly, always avoid contact with eyes and mouth, as entrance of soil into the eyes can cause sore eyes leading to infection. Similarly, entrance into the mouth can introduce bacteria to the mouth, as well as to the rest of the digestive system.

Data Analysis
1.   Place data into a cross table. One header is soil types and one header is light colours
2.    From this table, we can find out which combination of factors is most suitable for plant growth

D. Bibliography
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfisol (More Humid, Semi-arid)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entisol (Nutrient-lacking soil, weak compound)

APA Generated Links
A: Jolene Hansen (July 14, 2014). 3 Main Types of Soil. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ehow.com/list_7522643_3-main-types-soil.html. [Last Accessed July 17, 2014].
B: UCSB ScienceLine Coporation (25 August, 2012). e.g. Training and certification. [ONLINE] Available at: http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=3155. [Last Accessed 17 July, 2014].
C: Wikipedia (). Mollisol. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mollisol. [Last Accessed July 21, 2014].

What is the scientific method?

The scientific method is a simple but effective algorithim to carry out practical research. In other words, it is like one of those "Choose your own adventure" books that say "If you want to challenge the man in chess, flip to this page. If you want to cuddle a Great White, flip to that page." Something like that. That means, say if a step succeeds, you proceed. If a step fails, you go back. This can be applied to any form of scientific research and can also be represented in a flow chart for those who aren't that bright.